Day 1 :
University of Bejaia, Algeria
Betitera YANAT has is a teacher-resarcher in microbiology and has completed her PhD in 2017 at Bejaia University regarding antimicrobial resistance. Now, she is interested about gut microbiota and the relationship with inflammatory bowel disease
Currently, there are several therapeutic options for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, they may have possible adverse effects or even relatively significant efficacy. The fixed oil of flaxseed (Linum usitassimum) is known for its high content of omega 3 fatty acids and proteins acting as stimulators of the immune system. Thus, the main objective of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the fixed oil of flaxseed on a mouse model and its effect on the gut microbiota.
The anti-inflammatory effect of the fixed oil was tested with doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg on acetic acid-induced colitis on an animal model (albino mice) for 48 hours. In parallel, a bacteriological analysis of the faecal flora of each lot (healthy, sick and treated by fixed oil) was carried out by the enumeration of Escherichia coli on selective medium.
Statistical tests revealed that the administration of Linum usitatissimum fixed oil significantly (P <0.05) decreased the P / L (weight/ Length of the colon) ratio with a 15.1% reduction, as well as, a decrease in hemorrhagic erosions scattered throughout the colon compared to colitic lot and an improvement in colon length. In addition, a decrease in the number of E. coli in fecal matter was also observed. All these results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of the fixed oil. Thereby, flaxseed fixed oil has an anti-inflammatory effect and can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic strategy in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Anibijuwon is a Senior lecturer at the Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria. He is specialized in Medical microbiology and Public health. His research interests are antimicrobial resistance, infectious diseases, and antimicrobial activities of natural products. He is a member of the Nigerian Society of Microbiology and American Society of Microbiology. Dr. Anibijuwon has more than 10 years teaching and research experience in the field of Microbiology. He has published few articles in National and International research journals
Statement of the Problem: Misuse of drugs, medication non-adherence among other factors, has led to the emergence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi, which is a major threat because enteric fever could be fatal if improperly treated.
Theoretical Orientation: A cross-sectional survey was performed on 400 blood samples from out-patients in Children Specialist Hospital, Cottage Hospital, Adewole Specialist Hospital, and Civil Service Hospital, Ilorin over a period of five-month. The susceptibility of Salmonella typhi to antibiotics and plant extract of Cymbopogon citratus were also done.
Findings: Eight Salmonella typhi isolates were recovered from the patients. All the isolates were multi-drug resistant with a notable resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and co-trimoxazole. Molecular confirmation of the isolates showed DNA size of 500 base pairs. The most active extract was the ethanolic extract with MIC exhibited at 12.5mg/ml and MBC 25mg/ml. Phytochemical screening of the plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins, steroids and glycosides that may be responsible for their antibacterial actions.
Conclusion & Signaficance: The plant can be used to develop new drugs. The occurrence of typhoid fever is a major threat to the general public, antimicrobial resistance surveillance is recommendable for early detection of typhoid fever
Mr. Desalegn has completed his B.pharm at age 24 from Jimma univesrity and his Msc in clinical pharmacy at the age of 25 years from Jimma University School of pharmacy. He is the lecturer of school of pharmacy at Mizan-Tepi university. He has published 2 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as lecturer, researcher and coordinator of clinical pharmacy service at the organization.
Drug therapy problem is a significant challenge to provide high quality health care service for the patients. It is associated with morbidity, mortality, increased hospital stay and reduced quality of life. Moreover, pediatric patients are quite susceptible to drug therapy problems. Thus this study aimed to assess drug therapy problem and its contributing factors among pediatric patients diagnosed with infectious disease admitted to pediatric ward of Jimma university medical center, from April 1 to June 30, 2018. Prospective observational study was conducted among pediatric patients with infectious disease admitted from April 01 to June 30, 2018. Drug therapy problems were identified by using Cipolle’s and strand’s drug related problem classification method. Patient’s written informed consent was obtained after explaining the purpose of the study. Patient’s specific data were collected using structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi data version 4.0.2 and then exported to statistical software package version 21.0 for analysis. To identify predictors of drug therapy problems occurrence, multiple stepwise backward logistic regression analysis were done. The 95% CI was used to show the accuracy of data analysis and statistical significance was considered at p-value <0.05.
A total of 304 pediatric patients were included in the study. Of these, 226(74.3%) patients had at least one drug therapy problem during their hospital stay. A total of 356 drug therapy problems were identified among two hundred twenty six patients. Non-compliance (28.65%) and dose too low (27.53%) were the most common type of drug related problems while disease comorbidity [AOR=3.39, 95% CI= (1.89-6.08)], Polypharmacy [AOR=3.16, 95% CI= (1.61-6.20)] and more than six days stay in hospital [AOR=3.37, 95% CI= (1.71-6.64) were independent predictors of drug therapy problem occurrence.
Drug therapy problems were common in pediatric patients with infectious disease in the study area. Presence of comorbidity, Polypharmacy and Prolonged hospital stay were the predictors of drug therapy problem in study area. Therefore, to overcome the significant gaps in pediatric pharmaceutical care, clinical pharmacists, Pediatricians and other health care professional have to work in collaboration
Nishat paramedical college, Pakistan
Farrah bilal has completed his mphil in pharmaceutics from Pakistan. He is the lecturer in pharmacology department of Nishat paramedical collage. He has published foure papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an reviewer member.
Patients of Chronic liver diseases face a fatal complication known as bacteraemia which leads to gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy. Bacterial peritonitis and bacteraemia is common in liver cirrhosis but site of infection does not depend to aetiology of the liver disease. Along with bacteraemia, Urinary tract infections and respiratory tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infections complications seen in cirrhotic patients. So, clinical suspicion of bacteraemia is a indication of deterioration in the patients, increasing encephalopathy. Streptococci and Gram negative enteric is common organism that cause infections in liver patients of Pakistan. therefore, we have been conducted a descriptive reaeach study in various health care centres of pakistan in duration of three month. The incidence of bacteraemia in cirrhotic patients admitted in hospital with ascites has been estimated to range between 7 and 24%. The diagnosis is performed by polymorphonuclear cell count in ascitic fluid higher than 250/mm3. The diagnosis of SIBO is based on the use of glucose breath hydrogen tests or quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate
More than 70% patients have positive culture of Bacterial peritonitis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been shown to frequently occur in the setting of chronic liver diseases, Initial results of our study showed that cephalosporins are the most commonly used antibiotic treatment in bacteraemia complication with liver disease
Ibtissem DJINNI studied Microbiology at Bejaia University-Algeria and obtained her PhD in Microbiology in 2014 from the same University. She is a lecturer researcher at the Department of Microbiology of University of Bejaia since 2009. From 2007, her research work is focused on isolation, cultivation and characterization of actinobacteria and their secondary active metabolites for generating novel antibiotic scaffolds to combat antimicrobial resistance
The emergence and rapid spread of multidrug resistant bacteria such as the ESKAPE pathogens, represents a major problem for the bacterial infections treatment. Screening of novel actinobacteria from the extremobiosphere is one of the main strategies to obtain natural chemical diversity. During our screening program, a total of 273 actinobacteria strains were isolated from a Saharan soil sample (South Algeria) and subjected to antagonistic activity test against human pathogenic germs. The antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of the ethyl acetate crude extract obtained from the most active isolate GSBS4 was performed as well as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antioxidant potential of the extract was also evaluated by defining the total phenolic and flavonoids contents and the free radical scavenging activity along with the reducing power. The active isolated strain showed 100% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Nocardiopsis dassonvillei. It showed a broad activity spectrum where S. aureus and P. aeruginosa exhibited a susceptibility to the ethyl acetate crude extract with MICs estimated at 1.44. 102 mg/L and 11.5. 102 mg/L respectively. 44% biofilm reduction was obtained for S. aureus and 61% for P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, 13.78 ±0.75 mg/GAE/g dry weight of polyphenols and 4.7 ±0.34 mg/QE /g dry weight of flavonoids were recorded in the crude extract exhibiting a significant dose dependent antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH* (57.21%) and ABTS* (64.29%), respectively. These properties open up promising perspectives for the possible consideration of GSBS4 as a potential source of molecules acting against multidrug resistant bacteria and free radicals.
Marma Heatth Centre, India
A practicing physician in the field of healthcare in the state of Kerala in India for the last 30 years and very much interested in basic research. My interest is spread across the fever , inflammation and back pain,. I am a writer. I already printed and published nine books in these subjects. I wrote hundreds of articles in various magazines. After scientific studies we have developed 8000 affirmative cross checking questions. It can explain all queries related with fever
As you aware, if temperature increases (Absence of fever)after 31 degree Celsius , Warm sensitive neurons increase their firing rate and inhibit Cold sensitive neurons as core temperature increases. As temperature drops, the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons decreases, reducing their inhibition, and Cold sensitive neurons which respond by increasing their firing rates.
On the contrary to increase of temperature, in fever the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons decreases, the firing rate of Cold sensitive neurons increases as core temperature increases. inhibit warm sensitive neurons. The temperature increasing and decreasing controlled by the brain. The firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons and Cold sensitive neurons also controlled by the brain.
When the disease becomes threat to life or organs, blood circulation decreases. Temperature of fever will emerges to increase prevailing essential blood circulation.
WBC and their products stimulate the brain to increase temperature by increasing the firing rate of Cold sensitive neurons and decreasing the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons. And it acts as a protective covering of the body to sustain life.
There is no way other than this for a sensible and discreet brain to increase temperature.
If the aim of Cold sensitive neurons increasing their firing rates in hypothermia is to increase temperature, then the aim of Cold sensitive neurons increasing their firing rates during fever is also to increase temperature.
How can we prove that W neurons decreases and C neurons increases in fever to protect the life or organ?
If we ask any type of question related to fever by assuming that the Warm sensitive neurons decreases and Cold neurons increases in fever to protect the life or organ we will get a clear answer. If avoid or evade from this definition we will never get proper answer to even a single question. If we do any type of treatment by assuming that the Warm sensitive neurons decreases and Cold neurons increases in fever to protect the life or organ , the body will accept, at the same time body will resist whatever treatment to decrease temperature and blood circulation.
No further evidence is required to prove The Warm sensitive neurons decreases and Cold neurons increases in fever to protect the life or organ
University of Sharjah, UAE
Prof. I. Saadoun has received his PhD. in Microbiology from Auburn University, Alabama-USA in 1995. During his PhD, he worked on physiology and genetics of production of off-flavor compounds by streptomycetes and cyanobacteria. Prof. Saadoun has published several scientific papers in different refereed and indexed Journals. Most of these papers were in the area of inhibitory/metabolites-producing Streptomyces spp. Also he has participated in several local, regional and international meetings to present his work. Meanwhile, his research is targeting to patent a novel metabolite compound(s) produced by one of the Streptomyces spp. isolated from different habitats.
Microbial infections have been recognized as an important problem due to the emergence of resistant strains to multiple antibiotics. Therefore, there remains a need to find new antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity. One of these approaches is to expand the screening activity of the genus Streptomyces as it harbors great numbers of antibiotic producers. Several studies on the isolation, characterization and genotyping of soil streptomycetes of Jordan and UAE have already been conducted and the in vitro activity of the recovered isolates has been explored towards several multi-resistant pathogens. The optimal production conditions for the active substances by the most active Streptomyces strains as well as their extraction and purification were also investigated. Whole genome sequencing using illumina was performed on the strains isolated from the UAE region. Investigations revealed the identification of an antibiotic-producing Streptomyces strains to inhibit all tested organisms with the observation of different Rf values and UV absorption spectra of the active substances from some tested drugs. No low molecular weight plasmids were detected in these strains suggesting that their antibiotic production is likely chromosomally encoded DNA. PCR amplification of a genus-specific sequence in the Streptomyces’ 16S rDNA gene allowed the rapid and direct detection of streptomycin-producing Streptomyces species from soil. Whole genome sequencing showed that strains shared distinct, but related, phyletic lines with other Streptomyces species. AntiSMASH analysis identified many biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) with antimicrobial properties. The fact that these Streptomyces strains showed antibiotic activity towards all the tested pathogens were recovered from dried underexplored habitats in Jordan and UAE with harsh environmental conditions may support the idea of producing novel antibiotics under such conditions. All laboratory screenings for Streptomyces-producing antibiotics would serve as groundwork for the bio-industry.
Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria,
Lecturer II from Department of Biology Federal University Birnin Kebb, Nigeria (B.sc, M.sc and Ph.D. in Botany from Usmanu Danfodiyo university sokoto, Nigeria. Specialized on plant physiology and genomics
The term ‘genetic engineering’ stands for human alteration of the genetic code of an organism, so that its biosynthetic properties are changed. Genetic Engineering can be manipulation of genetic material by either molecular biological techniques or by selective breeding. While selective breeding has been practiced for thousands of years. The major applications are for the industrial production of desired peptides or proteins, or to alter the biological capabilites of the organism. These techniques have been used to develop crops with agronomically useful changes, such as pest resistance and ripening properties that allow for shipment. Humans have been changing the genetics of other species for thousands of years. The process of genetic engineering includes: Artificial selection of plants and animals, natural processes also at work (Mutation, crossing over). An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO).
Federal University, Nigeria
Prof. Kasimu Shehu is Professor, Department of Biology Federal University Birnin Kebb, Nigeria. Deputy Vice chancellor of Federal University Birnin Kebb, Nigeria. Obtained B.sc. from Botany Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto Nigeria, M.sc. Botany from University of Ibadan Nigeria and Ph. D. in Botany from Usmanu Danfodiyo university sokoto, Nigeria. Specialized on plant and Fungal biotechnology.
Groundnut (Arachis hypogea L) is an economically important crop and widely consumed in many parts of the world including Nigeria. Fungi exhibit greater species richness than most other organisms and, thus, are of significant environmental and economic importance. The fungal contaminants of groundnut products from three Agricultural zones of Sokoto state were characterized using morphological and molecular techniques;colonial morphology, cultural features, spore pigmentation, PCR and RAPD assay. Eight (8) fungal species (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. parasiticum,Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus Curvaleria and Mucur species) were identified.Fungal isolates were confirmed by PCR using ITS1/ITS4, ITS1/NIG and ITS1/FLA. The findings from this study suggest that groundnut products obtained from Sokoto stateare substantially contaminated with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Relevant quality control agencies should be reactivated to assess the quality of the Groundnut kernels from which the Groundnut cake, oil and other products are made.
ICMR-National Institute of occupational Health, India
Mahesh Chandra Sahu is from Department of Toxicology Division, ICMR-national institute of occupational Health
Background: Both organic and inorganic chemicals are deposited in Industrial effluents, which contains radioactive, metals, Antibiotics and carcinogenic substances. These effluents are directly or indirectly affecting the daily life of human. Through food chains it migrates to human health and cased different diseases with different drug resistant strains
Aim: Identification and characterization of Microorganism found in Industrial liquid waste effluent and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern.
Materials and methods: Fifty-five industrial waste effluent samples were collected from waste effluent sites, serially diluted and documented CFU from individual effluents and sub-cultured for isolated colony on nutrient agar plate then grown bacteria were identified with culture morphology and biochemical tests. disc diffusion method was used for antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolated bacteria. DNA isolated from the drug resistant strains and attempts to identify with molecular tools.
Results: From 55 industrial waste samples, total 13 different types of bacterial strains were found from industrial waste effluent. Among all isolated bacteria; pseudomonas spp. was found highest (20%), followed by S. epidermidis (18%), pseudomonas aeruginosa (10%), Gram positive bacilli (8%), Acenatobacter spp. (6%), staphylococcus aureus (5%), micrococcus spp. And Citrobacter spp. (3%), shigella spp. (2%) and Escherichia coli (1%). Also 2 aspergillus spp. and 2 unidentified fungus were revealed from this study. Bacteria were identified using 16S rRNA primer (27F, 1492R). antibiotic susceptibility pattern revealed all the organism shows 100% resistant to amoxiclav, 71% resistant to ampicillin and 43% resistant to Oxacillin antibiotics, 23% resistant to streptomycin, 15% resistant to both gentamycin and tetracycline antibiotics. Also, we revealed 31%MRSA from industrial waste, whereas rest 69% revealed MSSA strain. All the gram-positive strain shown highly resistant against beta-lactam group antibiotics.
Conclusion: Our findings raise potential public health concerns for industrial waste effluent. workers and individuals exposed to reclaimed wastewater. Because of increasing use of reclaimed wastewater, further study is needed to evaluate the risk of exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria in treated wastewater.